Newspaper Items on House Committee of Indian Affairs Investigation of Moses Friedman and Carlisle Indian School staff (January 31, 1914 to October 23, 1915), transcribed by Linda M. Waggoner

The Star and Sentinel (Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Saturday, January 31, 1914 [, historical newspaper]
Carlisle Superintendent Ordered to Return to Post
Investigation of Indian School Management may Take Wider Steps
Washington, Jan. 24.-Moses Friedman, superintendent of the Carlisle Indian School, whose management is under thorough investigation by Indian Commissioner Sells, was ordered to return to his post.
While here Mr. Friedman took occasion to say that the charges against him were instigated by General R. H. Pratt, former head of the school and its first superintendent. Commissioner Sells refused to hear any countercharges, and that his place was at Carlisle and not in Washington, having come here without sanction of the bureau.
The charges are against the administration of Mr. Friedman, and in no way affect the school itself.
The investigators also may inquire into the action of Judge Sadler, of Cumberland County, in sending a young girl and Indian boy to jail for 60 days for an offense which, under the Pennsylvania laws, is merely punishable by a fine. The Federal Government is thoroughly aroused over the confining of its wards in jail.
Some of the charges preferred against the superintendent set forth that liquor was used by the Indians in the school: that more than one-third of the scholars allege that Mr. Friedman is incompetent; that the attitude of the superintendent became so offensive to the scholars that they hissed him when he appeared before then, and that the commission of certain offenses by the Indian shows more than anything else a deplorable lack of discipline.
Carlisle, Pa., Jan. 24.-Superintendent Friedman, of the Carlisle Indian Schol [sic], concerning whose administration formal criticisms have been made at Washington, returned to Carlisle to-day. He said he welcomed any fair investigation and the more thorough it was the better he would like.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) January 31, 1914 [, historical newspaper]

Indian School Trouble Again
Carlisle Indian School Superintendent States that he would Welcome an Investigation. Various Charges are Alleged, it is Said.
"I will welcome any fair investigation, and the more thorough the better. The record of the school speaks for itself."
Thus spoke Superintendent Moses Friedman, of the Carlisle Indian School, upon his return to Carlisle from Washington when asked for a statement regarding the recent charges brought against him and the school. Continuing, Mr. Friedman stated that he would have a further statement to issue to the public, probably next week.
According to some citizens in Carlisle who have been defending the superintendent, Mr. Friedman will not tolerate incompetency [sic] about the school and it is said that during the past year quite a number of employes who have been under civil service have been dropped for cause and that they are back of the investigation.
Mr. Friedman claims the record made by the school since he has been in charge speaks for itself, and residents of Carlisle who favor his retention say that he has vigorously prosecuted charges of illegal sale of liquor to Indian students. It is said, too, that Mr. Friedman devotes all of his time to the school and that he has reased [raised] the standard of the athletic and academic courses.
While in Washington Mr. Friedman took occasion to say that the charges against him were instigated by Colonel R. H. Pratt, former head of the school and its first superintendent. Commissioner Sells refused to hear any counter-charges, and informed Mr. Friedman that his place was at Carlisle and not in Washington, having gone there without sanction of the bureau.
Some of the charges preferred against the superintendent set forth that liquor was used by the Indians in the school; that more than one-third of the scholars allege Mr. Friedman is incompetent; that the attitude of the superintendent became so offensive to the scholars that they hissed him when he appeared before them, and that the commission of certain offenses by the Indians shows more than anything else a deplorable lack of discipline.
Plan to Make Better Indians
Bill Introduced Providing for Additional Courses at Carlisle. Paper of that Town Rises in Defense of Friedman.
A more advanced curriculum and manual training features of broader scope will be inaugurated at the Carlisle Indian School, if the recommendations of the House Committee on Indian Affairs prevail. This committee favorably considered the raising of the school's standard on Saturday and at the same time approved of its annual appropriation of $152,000.
There is a great difference of opinion as to the needs for the establishment of higher education for Indians. Those who are familiar with the subject say that while the Indian has made great strides in intellectual and material development, he is not sufficiently advanced in academic branches to justify teaching in university studies.
As a result of expert opinion the House Committee recommended a gradual raising of the course at Carlisle to include some of the studies embraced in the best high schools and an extension of the manual training course. It is proposed to teach the Indian practical trades that will fit him to take his place beside the white boy.
The Carlisle Herald is quick to resent the charges said to have been brought against the superintendent of the school, saying in an editorial:
"The Indian school should be protected. The present investigation might develop into a pretext made up of false fabric for the removal of the school from Carlisle to some point in the west. If this should culminate, the blame will be justly placed on Carlisle residents, for it is on complaints based on selfish motives originated in Carlisle that have caused the present situation.
"A canvass made of responsible citizens who are in touch with the affairs of the Indian school, shows how the conduct of the institution is regarded in Carlisle. Mr. Friedman is held in the highest personal esteem. He has been energetic in broadening the curriculum of the school and extending its practical courses, adopting several new and valuable ideas. He has worked constantly in upbuilding the school. When he came here the condition of the buildings and grounds was pathetic. To-day the campus and its adjoining structures, are models of neatness and architectural beauty. The buildings which were once unsanitary shack, are in the best condition."
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) February 7, 1914 [, historical newspaper]

Will Not Move Indian School
Investigation at Carlisle School Will not Cause its Removal to Western State, Says Authority of the Matter.
A Washington dispatch to the Philadelphia Ledger under date of January 30, says:
"In truth, the statement must be made that all those interested in the care of the Indians, including members of congressional committees, had no ulterior purpose in ordering the investigation. There has been no agitation here, despite the assertions at Carlisle, that the inquiry has as its ultimate purpose the removal of the school from Carlisle.
"As a matter of fact, the present investigation is only one of the many conducted by the new commissioner, who has announced his policy of reorganizing the Indian Bureau and freeing it from politics and incompetence. The opinion expressed is that the agitation at Carlisle will have no effect upon the situation. Commissioner Sells told the Public Ledger correspondent that the issues injected into the trouble by citizens of Carlisle would not be considered, and that the inquiry would proceed upon unprejudiced and judicial lines.
"Without entering into the various charges, he said that the question was whether or not they were true. If the investigation being conducted by Inspector Linnen shows that the charges alleged by the Indian Rights Association are unfounded, Superintendent Friedman would be upheld. On the other hand, he told of summary dismissal of another superintendent of a Western school as illustrative of his action in Superintendent Friedman's case should the serious features of the charges be sustained.
"I may say to those interested in the Carlisle School that the investigation bears solely upon the management of the school", he added, "and in no way is intended to find reasons for its removal. The policy of the bureau is fixed. Carlisle School will be continued. It is one of the best in the country, and the Government has too much money invested there ever to consider its removal."
"The investigation will be completed in the next week."
Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania), Saturday, February 7, 1914 [, historical newspaper]

Probers Visit Indian School
Come into Carlisle Suddenly and Without Advising Superintendent. Hearings are Held Privately by Investigating Committee.
A committee acting under a joint resolution of the National Senate and House dropped unexpectedly into Carlisle last evening, and, without notifying Superintendent Friedman, of the Carlisle Indian School, of their presence, pre-empted quarters, and together with J. Linnen. a Government Indian Office inspector, who has been in Carlisle for some days, conducted what is reported to be an investigation of the Indian School and its management.
This report is given strength by the fact that it is known that a number of persons recognized as unfriendly to Friedman and the school, either or both were heard.
The commission consisted of Senators Robinson and Lane and Representatives Carter and Stevens. Newspaper men were refused admission by the secretary of the commission, R. B. Keating.
Congressman Arthur R. Rupley, who met the commission at Carlisle, and who has recently denied making charges concerning the Indian school, said that the meeting was public, although access would not be given members of the press by Chairman Robinson.
Considerable indignation was shown by Carlisle people of prominence last evening at what looked like a star-chamber meeting.
Secretary Keating averred that the commission had given no notice to anyone of its arrival or its intention to come; but his statement was hardly corroborated by appearances.
Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania), Saturday, February 10, 1914 [, historical newspaper]

Irregularities at Indian School
Are Unsatisfactory and Must be Corrected, Says, Senator.
To Continue the Probe
Superintendent Friedman Declares He Welcomes Investigation of U. S. Commission.
Washington, Feb. 10.-Senator Robinson, head of a special commission which investigated conditions at the Carlisle Indian school, reports affairs there as being unsatisfactory, and announces that a more thorough probe will be made.
He complains of discipline or lack of it, moral conditions and discouragement of athletics. He said:
"The joint commission to investigate Indian affairs, visited the Carlisle school for Indians, at Carlisle, Pa., the latter part of last week. The testimony of many pupils and employes of the school was taken, as was also that of several citizens of the town of Carlisle. Among the matters investigated were the general disciplinary and moral conditions prevailing in the school, the academic and demonstration work, and the method of disbursing the athletic funds.
"The commission does not desire at this time to discuss the matter at length, the welfare of the school and its importance being the primary consideration. We have no hesitancy in saying that the conditions at Carlisle are, in many respects, unsatisfactory and require correction."
Senator Robinson said the joint committee visited Carlisle for the purpose of investigating conditions generally prevailing in the school. Among the complaints, he said, were charges of laxity of discipline, unjust expulsion of students, misrepresentation of the school to the public generally by the school authorities and to the Indian bureau; alleged unsanitary conditions; complaints as to the quality and quantity of the food, and also complaints against alleged unjust punishment.
Moses Friedman, superintendent of the school, says he welcomes a fair investigation. In 1904 Mr. Frieman [sic] took a government position at the Indian school at Phoenix, Ariz. From 1904 to 1906 he organized industrial training schools in the Phillippines [sic] and then became assistant superintendent of Haskell institute, at Lawrence, Kan., an Indian school. Since April 1, 1908, he has been the superintendent of Carlisle.
Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania), Friday, February 13, 1914 [, historical newspaper]

Suspend School Superintendent
Moses Friedman, Superintendent of Carlisle Indian School, is Suspended Pending Further Investigation by Commission. The Charges.
Indian Commissioner Cato Sells has suspended Moses Friedman, Superintendent of Carlisle Indian School, pending further investigation, on charges of lack of discipline. Indian Supervisor O. H. Lipps was assigned temporarily to the management of the school.
Charges have been preferred to Congress that under the management of Superintendent Friedman loose morals prevailed in the school, and that many Indian girls sent there for instruction came to moral grief.
Conditions at the school were investigated recently by a special congressional commission headed by Senator Robinson, Arkansas. The preliminary report of the commission was damaging to the school management and a more complete investigation was recommended.
Senator Robinson gave out a statement in which the commission reports trouble with discipline at the school, complains of moral conditions existing there and deplores failure on the part of the school management to encourage athletics. Details of moral conditions complained of are withheld by the commission.
Commissioner Sells, having the intimate report of the commission, promptly suspended Friedman and Stauffer and has directed a searching inquiry by investigators of his department. There is co-education of Indian boys and girls at Carlisle School. It is one of the oldest Indian schools maintained by the Government, and its graduates have been sent among the Indian tribes as missionaries in the cause of education and civilization.
The news of his suspension was a surprise to Superintendent Friedman, who said that he did not care to talk for publication, further than to say that he hoped to have the opportunity of showing that his administration at Carlisle was effective and did not merit condemnation in any instance.
Director of Music Claude M. Stauffer, of the Carlisle Indian School, has also been suspended. The bandmaster is not now in Carlisle, nor is he represented there by counsel.
It is not believed that the recent investigation will affect more officials at Carlisle.
The Evening Sentinel, Friday 13, 1914, Cumberland County Historical Society (microfilm)

Friedman Suspended
Bandmaster C. M. Stouffer Also Relieved of Duties
Results of Investigation
Congressional Committee Orders Superintendent Friedman to Trial-Hints at More Charges

A special dispatch from the Public Ledger's Washington Bureau, says:
Washington, Feb. 12-Cato Sells, commissioner of Indian Affairs, today suspended Moses Friedman, superintendent of the Carlisle, Pa., Indian School and also Bandmaster Stauffer. . . .
. . . Some of the charges made against Friedman are directed against his action in reference to misconduct of students. The matter came to a climax some months ago when Friedman had a girl and boy arrested and sent to court. They were remanded to jail and kept there 60 days. The committee holds that this action shows more than anything else Friedman's incompetence.
According to a member of the committee a girl was punished by Stauffer, who used a club and inflicted severe injuries. Upon being confronted with the charge, Stauffer admitted that he had administered corporal punishment. He was upheld by the superintendent. Another charge against the latter is that he failed to provide proper rations and the girls frequently had to forego bread, so that the boys, who had worked on the farm or in manual labor, might have a supply.
Senator Lane said today that the attempt made by Friedman to win sympathy, on the ground that the inquiry was undertaken to effect the school's removal was absolutely groundless.
"As the charges against Mr. Friedman become public this impression will disappear", said Senator Lane. "The committee and every one interested in Indian affairs are convinced that the school should remain at Carlisle. Its efficiency and management will be strengthened as the result of the impartial inquiry under way. The bill founding the school provided that it should come under military supervision and the inquiry has convinced many members of the commission that this should be done speedily.
Hints at More Charges
Matthew K. Sniffen, secretary of the Indian Rights Association, which preferred the charges against Superintendent Moses Friedman, of the Carlisle Indian School, yesterday said that the suspension of the superintendent and bandmaster, ordered by Commissioner Sells, did not surprise him, as he was expecting such an outcome.
"This association," said Mr. Sniffen, "has never yet made charges which it has not been able to sustain." . . .
. . . "At the proper time", said he, "we will be ready to present our facts to the public. Until then we must remain silent."
Lipps Here
Oscar C. Lipps, supervisor in the U. S. Indian Bureau at Washington, D. C., has arrived here and is in charge of the Carlisle School.
To a Sentinel reporter, Mr. Lipps stated that he did not expect to remain here long. He arrived last night. He stated that he has been in the Indian service for some time, and was connected with western institutions, among them Chilocco, Oklahoma, where are several former Carlislers. He has been to Carlisle once or twice before and has sent a goodly number of students to this school. He is here under orders of the bureau and has taken charge of the school.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) February 14, 1914 [, historical newspaper]

Hear Complaints
To Find Out How Things are Going at Indian School
Senators Robinson, Arkansas, and Lane, Oregon, and Representative Carter, Oklahoma, and Stephens, Texas, constituting a joint sub-committee of the Indian Affairs Committee of the two houses of Congress, on Saturday continued their investigation of affairs at the Carlisle Indian School . . . Senator Robinson . . . said "There are some other matters relating to the accounts of the superintendent connected with the athletic fund, and his accounts as superintendent that are under investigation."
Source unknown, newspaper clipping, date 1914, Society of American Indian Papers, Reel 8, Part II, Series 1, correspondence
Spanking for a Girl Cause of Carlisle Row
Suspension of Superintendent of Indian School Brings About Serious Dissension.
Carlisle, Pa., Feb. 11 [illegible]. The Carlisle Indian School today was threatened with a serious dissension because of the suspension of Superintendent Moses Friedman supposedly for the spanking of an Indian girl pupil.
The school authorities made no statement about the action against Friedman but it was understood and freely stated among the students and members of the faculty that Friedman was suspended because he ordered an official of the school to spank a refractory[?] girl.
The corporal punishment it was said was ordered by the superintendent and the matron of the girl's department.

U. S. Investigates Carlisle Scandal
Inquiry Into Books of Football Team; Flogging of Indians Charged.
Washington, Feb. 15.-Following the suspension of Superintendent Freidman, the books of the Carlisle Indian School have been turned over to the Department of Justice for investigation. It is intimated that criminal prosecutions are likely to follow.
Notably among the accounts which are said to be in confusion are those fo the famous Carlisle football eleven. It is alleged that receipts from the big fames played by the eleven are missing and the government officials are trying to find where the money has gone.
In addition to the removal of Superintendent Friedman a shake-up of the entire teaching and general staff of the school is impending. The school payroll amounts to about $50,000 a year.
Flogging of Indian students, improper food, misconduct and incompetent management and teaching are some of he charges developed by an investigation conducted by Indian Inspector Linnen and the joint Commission on Indian Affairs headed by Senator Robinson of Arkansas.
Abuses in connection with the "farming out" of Indian children have been uncovered, with the result that the practice will be abolished. In addition to bad food it is charged that no knives or forks were allowed many of the children, who reverted to the aboriginal method of eating.
Gross misconduct involving employes and girl students are alleged to have been found. It is charged that these laxities were generally known and overlooked by those whose duty it was to safeguard the inmates of the school.
Similar conditions at other Indian institutions are alleged to exist and a quiet, but sweeping, investigation is now being carried on under the direction of the joint commission. ************************************************************************
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) February 21, 1914 [, historical newspapers]
Friedman Says No Charges Yet
Superintendent at Carlisle Indian School Says he Has Received no Formal Notification of the Charges against him.
Superintendent Friedman of the Carlisle Indian School, now under suspension, who is involved in charges now under consideration by the Indian office, was asked what charges had been made.
The suspended superintendent said that he himself and, so far as he knows, no one else of the official staff at the Indian school, had received a copy of the charges. He said that the published statement from Washington to this effect was inaccurate and that he had no way of telling what he was charged with except by inference and newspaper reports.
The rumor that emanated from Washington to the effect that the Musical Director Claude M. Stauffer had beaten a girl with a club, was answered by Stauffer's friends, in his absence from Carlisle. It is said that there was a serious infraction of discipline in the school and that the matron asked that the girl involved be spanked.
The bandmaster was asked by the matron to perform the task, his friends say, and in the presence of the head matron, the school principal and the outing manager, the punishment was administered. A piece of wood, a quarter of an inch by three inches, broken from a soap box, was used and the punishment was very light, according to the witnesses. The girl wrote Mr. Stauffer a letter after the spanking, expressing sorrow for her misdeed and thanking him for what he had done, declaring herself that she deserved it, it is said.
Stauffer had been a loyal supporter of the Friedman administration. His friends say that he had a stormy interview with Inspector J. Linnen. No other Indian school official is known to have received charges.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) March 28, 1914 [, historical newspapers]

Employees Did Not Testify
Carlisle Indian School Matter Takes Another Turn when Employees are not Allowed to Testify at Hearing.
Case Continued.

Bitter accusations featured the hearing before Justice Hughes in Carlisle on Thursday in which Chief Clerk Siceni Nori, of the Carlisle Indian School, who has been charged before the State courts with embezzlement by suspended Superintendent Friedman, of the Carlisle School, was the defendant. Friedman alleges that Nori took student money deposited there for transportation. Assistant United States District Attorney John McCort, of Wilkes-Barre, advised government employes subpoenaed on the case to refuse to give information to the State courts, pleading so-called governmental privilege. Magistrate Hughes adjourned the hearing until April 24 at the request of Friedman's counsel, who said they would furnish evidence then.
Attorney Weizel, for the prosecution, accused the United States Government officials of protecting a criminal and defied them to prosecute Nori before the Federal authorities. He said Friedman's State prosecution would be abandoned immediately when the Federal officials raised their protecting arm from Nori and brought Federal action.
McCort said that he would not allow government employes who were asked to testify and begged the magistrate not to allow himself to become a partner in what he insinuated was a fishing expedition to get information from the government superintendent.
Friedman took the stand and told all he knew of the handling of student money at Carlisle. Nori's attorneys, Berg and McCort, refused to cross-examine him.
Inspector Linnen, who had had charge of the Carlisle School investigation, declined to produce any government papers without departmental orders and would not say if he knew of any embezzlement by Nori. McCort wanted the proceedings quashed because he averred that Federal laws covered such cases and that Nori was a government ward answerable to Uncle Sam alone. Friedman's attorneys argued that Nori was not a government ward, that the reservation was under State law for criminal causes, as it was never ceded to the Federal Government.
Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) March 30, 1914 [, historical newspapers]

New Sensation
Boy Said to Have Destroyed Records Showing Misuse of Funds.
The criminal prosecution of Moses Friedman, the suspended superintendent of Carlisle Indian School, as well as his discharge from office, may result from evidence obtained by Commissioner of Indian Affairs Cato Sells within the week.
Commissioner Sells has in his possession an affidavit from Siceni Nori, secretary to Superintendent Friedman, that he destroyed papers tending to show that funds belonging to the school had been misappropriated by Friedman. The Indian boy alleges that he burned the evidence at the direction of the suspended superintendent. Nori's affidavit was obtained by Chief Inspector of the Indian Bureau Littie, after the former had indicated to a joint Congressional Commission on Indian Affairs the character of the papers missing from the files at Carlisle.
Close upon the submission of Nori's affidavit to the Indian Bureau came the arrest of the Indian at Carlisle on the charge of having destroyed property owned by the Government. The suspicion has arisen in the minds of officials that the arrest was instigated by Friedman or his friends to get at the information which had been divulged to the Government.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) April 4, 1914 [, historical newspapers]
Nori Has Also Been Suspended
Further Development at Carlisle School Results in Suspension of Clerk Who is Said to have Admitted Destroying Papers.

Seconi [sic] Nori, chief clerk of the Indian School at Carlisle, who made a confession last week declaring that he had destroyed evidence of the misuse of money at the instigation of Moses Friedman, suspended superintendent of the school, was also suspended Wednesday by Cato Sells Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Hist suspension resulted from the transmission of his confession and evidence taken by the special committee headed by Senator Robinson. It is announced that this evidence shows Nori culpable and there is a doubt in the minds of officials whether the confession has a great deal of truth in it.
In ordering his suspension Commissioner Sells ordered a hearing. This hearing will bring to a focus the financial transactions at Carlisle in which Nori implicated the accused superintendent. Such a procedure will take the case against Nori out of the courts of Pennsylvania and transfer it to the Federal Authorities. Moses Friedman will be subpoenaed to appear and defend himself and the result of the investigation will undoubtedly decide the case not only against Nori but Friedman as well.
The opinion prevails that the suspended Indian clerk, Superintendent Friedman and Bandmaster Stauffer who was suspended a month ago will be dismissed from the service.
Developments also indicated that criminal procedure will follow. The government officials are determined to make those responsible for the misuse of funds pay a severe penalty.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 2, 1914 [, historical newspapers]

More Trouble at Carlisle School
Another Employe at Government School Has Charge against him.
Conditions there Getting More Unsatisfactory.
Do not Like Delay.

Acting Superintendent Lipps, of the Carlisle Indian School, has reported to Commissioner of Indian Affairs Sells, at Washington, that the demoralization there is increasing.
A cook, he stated in a formal charge, had taken one of the Indian boys to a saloon in Carlisle and bought him liquor. This is against the law, and the cook is subject to a fine and imprisonment.
Commissioner Sells, with the new charge before him, has four cases to dispose of in connection with the Carlisle school. He will act on them at the same time, and indications are that all those accused will be dismissed and some proceeded against criminally.
Those accused are:
Moses Friedman, superintendent, suspended on the charge of incompetence and permitting irregularities regarding the funds to exist.
W. K. Stauffer, bandmaster, suspended for clubbing an Indian girl.
Seceni Nori, chief clerk, charged with misappropriating funds and destroying documents.
The fourth charge is that just made against the cook.
Representatives of the Indian Rights Association, with headquarters in Philadelphia, are becoming impatient at the delay of Commissioner Sells in formally acting. The investigation against the first three men was completed more than a month ago.
Since that time, the acting superintendent reports, the demoralization at the school has grown, because the Indian pupils believe that pressure had been brought to save the men they think should have been dismissed long ago.
Political and other pressure has been used upon Commissioner Sells in behalf of Mr. Friedman. Those who know Commissioner Sells say that he cannot be swayed by any influence, no matter how powerful.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 16, 1914 [, historical newspapers]

School Troubles
Several Resign from Carlisle Indian School, Recent Developments.

Resignations of Moses Friedman, superintendent, and S. J. Nori, chief clerk of the Carlisle Indian School, were accepted Monday be Cato Sells, commissioner of Indian Affairs. Two person holding minor positions at the school were transferred, and another was removed.
Charges were filed several months ago against Friedman, Nori and other officials at the school and a congressional committee instituted an investigation which resulted in Friedman's suspension. In accepting the resignations Commissioner Sells stated that action did not indicate the attitude the bureau on any phase of the accusations.
The charges investigated by the congressional committee included laxity of discipline, unjust expulsion of students and misrepresentations of the school to the public by officials of the institution.
Findings in the case, Mr. Sells said, had been referred to the Department of Justice for such action as it sees fit to take.
Commissioner Sells announced that a special officer of the bureau, who had been at Carlisle recently, apprehended five men selling liquor to Indian students.
Star and Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) June 13, 1914 [, historical newspapers]
Friedman Blames Politics
A desire on the part of the present Democratic administration to oust as many of the Republican office holders as possible to make room for appointees of their own, is blamed by Moses Friedman, who recently resigned as superintendent of the Carlisle Indian School, for the attacks on the school which resulted in the resignation of Mr. Friedman and the veiled threats to prosecute Glenn Warner, the football coach, for alleged misuse of the athletic fund of the institution.
Star and Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) July 11, 1914 [, historical newspapers]
Indian School Head May Not Be Prosecuted
Former Superintendent Friedman Immune-Limitation Cuts Out Action.

The investigation of conditions at the Carlisle Indian School by a commission appointed for that purpose, which lead to charges against Moses Friedman for irregularities during his incumbency as superintendent, seems to have met serious obstacles in so far as prosecution of the defendant is concerned. This does not mean that Mr. Friedman has been exonerated but Attorney General McReynolds has decided that the statute of limitations has run against the most serious offenses alleged to have been committed by Mr. Friedman.
A general shake up followed the investigation of affairs at Carlisle and for a time matters looked rather gloomy for the Superintendent, although he insisted that the attack against him was made purely out of jealous motives. Glen Warner, the famous football coach was charged with irregularities as were Hugh R. Miller and E. L. Martin, news paper correspondents who though not connected with the School are alleged to have received money for boosting the athletics, at the instigation of Coach Warner.
Secretary of the Interior, Lane is waiting on a detailed report from the Department of Justice on the legal aspects of the charges against Superintendent Friedman, but it is known that the report will explain that the particular offenses charged are now covered by the statute of limitations. The testimony of Chief Clerk Miller, Siceni Nori, and several others brought out at the hearing before the Commissioner of Indian affair satisfied the Department of the Interior and Mr. McReynolds of the irregularities of the Superintendent.
There are some other charges as to acts said not to be covered by the statute of limitations, but the Department of Justice feels that insufficient evidence has been brought forward. Further investigation may be made in certain quarters, but there is a general impression that Friedman will go scot free.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) July 11, 1914 [, historical newspapers]
Friedman Wants Investigation
Scorns Immunity Offer Made by Federal Official and Says Things at Carlisle Indian School Must be thoroughly Shown.
Moses Friedman, until recently superintendent of the Carlisle Indian School, has indignantly thrown down the offer of the Department of Justice to drop further inquiry into his administration of the Carlisle School, and challenged the Government to complete the investigation which was instigated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Mr. Friedman, who has been visiting friends in Philadelphia since he resigned from the superintendency of the school late in May, was aroused by the publication yesterday of a dispatch from Washington which said that the Department of Justice had decided to take no further notice of the case because the acts alleged against Mr. Friedman are now covered by the statute of limitations.
"I want this inquiry to go on, until as must be the result, my reputation is vindicated and the conditions which drove me to resign are shown to be the result of a carefully planned persecution at the hands of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, under Commissioner Sells. The intimation that I was dismissed on account of irregularities and incompetency, and that the charges were established in a fair investigation, is one more manifestation of the campaign which has been directed against me and which I can no longer endure in silence.
"As for the accusations of irregularities in the finances of the school, there is not one transaction for which I cannot render an account. That the testimony of Nori, shifting the blame for his defalcations upon me, should have been accepted shows the malignance of the attack upon me. During my incumbency, I handled $2,000,000 of the school funds. My accounts show that not one penny of it was misappropriated.
"I would prefer anything in the world than to have this matter dropped while the impression is spread abroad that I ought to be grateful for the 'leniency' of the Department of Justice in deciding that it will not prosecute me," he declared. "All that I have in the world is my character. I cannot suffer this injustice, which seeks relentlessly to ruin me, to go on. I have absolutely nothing to fear from the most searching inquiry that can be brought to bear upon the matter. I welcome it. But it is those who have made me the object of their persecution who ought to fear such publicity; for I declare there exists in the Bureau of Indian Affairs a system of star chamber inquisition which if allowed to grow, will result in an impairment of the efficiency in the Federal service so grave that the Administration must take steps to stamp it out or else mock at justice."
Star and Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) November 14, 1914 [, historical newspapers]
Will Not Be Tried In Cumberland County
The case of Mr. Nori, the Indian Clerk of Superintendent Friedman, of the Carlisle Indian School, who was to have been tried in connection with alleged mismanagement disclosed by investigation at the school recently, will not come up in Cumberland County Court, at Carlisle, where it was listed. A telegram was received by District Attorney Alexander from the U. S. District Attorney, stating that the U. S. District Court will present a bill of indictment against Nori before the Grand Jury of the U. S. District Court. ************************************************************************
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) December 19, 1914 [, historical newspapers]

Indian School Difficulties will be Followed Up.
As a result of the insistence of the Interior Department that there be no let-up in the prosecution of charges of mismanagement at the Carlisle Indian School, bills of indictment will be presented to the grand jury at Scranton, within the next two weeks.
Moses L. Friedman, formerly superintendent of the school, and S. J. Neri [sic], a clerk, are the men against whom the charges are pressed.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) January 16, 1915 [, historical newspapers]

Say They Burned Public Records
Charges against Indian School Officials Matter for Hearing before Federal Grand Jury. True Bills in Three Indictments.
Three true bills were found by a Federal Court grand jury against S. J. Nori, former chief clerk, and Moses Friedman, former superintendent of the Carlisle Indian School at Sunbury on Thursday. On one bill both are charged with destroying and burning public records. On a second bill four counts are found against each, charging embezzling of public moneys, and on a third Friedman alone is indicted charged with embezzling receipts from the sale of tickets at athletic games.
According to the first indictment, the two former Federal officials are charged with "willfully destroying and burning records and papers in the form of written receipts for moneys." The allegations cover twenty receipts which were given, it is charged, by S. J. Nori for individual Indian student accounts, which before then had been transferred by William N. Miller, financial clerk of the school, to Nori as chief clerk for use by road transportation for Indian students, the names of whom are unknown because of the destruction of these receipts. The specific allegation is that these receipts were burned on or about the 10th of March, 1914.
Both are jointly indicted on four counts in the second indictment. It is alleged that it was their duty, the indictment says, to take care of moneys belonging to the students until such time as they were needed for payment of the expenses incurred by these students in traveling from their homes in remote parts of the United States to Carlisle.
These moneys are usually placed on deposit for the students to their credit with the Farmers' Trust Company, of Carlisle, according to the indictment, subject to withdrawal check by the individual student to whom it belongs, but only upon the written approval of the superintendent and supervision of the chief clerk, and under the law they are charged with the safekeeping of this money.
Some of it, it is alleged, was appropriated by them. These alleged embezzlements are said to have taken place between January 20, 1912, and January 20, 1914. The specific charges are for sums totaling $167.90.
In the third indictment Friedman is alone charged with the alleged embezzlement of $5.72 from the sale of tickets of admission to athletic games during November, 1912.
Trial of the case has been set for the first Monday in March at Scranton.
Star and Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 15, 1915 [, historical newspapers]

Lipps Made Head of Carlisle School
Supervisor in Charge Appointed Superintendent of Institution by Indian Commissioner

Washington, May 13.-Oscar H. Lipps, who has been the supervisor in charge at the Carlisle Indian School since Moses P. Friedman was dismissed was appointed superintendent of the school yesterday by Cato Sells, Indian Commissioner. Mr. Lipps has been at the head of the institution for nearly a year, and in the opinion of Commissioner Sells has showed himself absolutely qualified.
Mr. Lipps entered the Indian service as a teacher in 1898. He had been superintendent of an Indian school in Utah, where he acted as supervisor of the farms and later as supervisor of the school.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) May 15, 1915 [, historical newspapers]

Hear Testimony
Former Indian School Superintendent is Indicted.
Dr. Moses Friedman, former superintendent of the Carlisle Indian School, and S. J. Nori, former chief clerk, were indicted by the Federal Grand Jury at Sunbury on Friday on charges of misappropriating funds collected at athletic events of the school and for making illegal use of money furnished for traveling expenses of the athletes.
Friedman and Nori resigned from the school after an investigation into its affairs had been started by the government.
Two Indian maidens were brought in from the West to testify against them. Miss Margaret Buffalo, a Chippewa girl, told the grand jury of alleged transactions with the pair, saying that she gave Friedman and Nori money to keep for her that never was returned. Susie Wallace , a Crow Indian maiden, who was a student at Carlisle, made a similar statement.
Nori appeared as a witness against his former chief. It is understood that he has turned State's evidence and has declared that any money that he received from Indians that was not accounted had passed from his hands, and that he could produce receipts for it.
The pair were indicted last January on charges of embezzlement and failure to make satisfactory accounting of money received from the Athletic Association of the school. This case has been continued to the October term.
Star and Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) June 19, 1914 [, historical newspapers]
Friedman Goes Free
Former Head of Carlisle School Acquitted of Graft Charges In U. S. Court
Williamsport, June 17.-Dr. Moses Friedman former superintendent of the Carlisle Indian school, on trial in the United States court here on charges of graft, was today acquitted.
Testimony given by Dr. Friedman and J[S.]. G. Nori, an Indian, a clerk at the school during the trial was conflicting. Nori pleaded guilty to embezzlement and the destruction of certain documents, at the instance of Dr. Friedman. The court drew from Nori the statement that Friedman, could have just as easily destroyed the papers himself, for he had access to the safe, however he chose Nori to get rid of them, according to the witness. On the stand, Dr. Friedman strongly denied the charges and gave a detailed account of the duties of his office, stating that a number of times he had refused to sign vouchers drawn up by Nori until they were carefully checked. Nori, it developed, is separated from his wife and was sentenced by a court some time ago to pay her for the support of her and her two children.
Adams County News (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania) October 23, 1915 [, historical newspapers]

Clean Slate for Moses Friedman
Former Indian School Superintendent is Entirely Vindicated. Now Holds Another Position at Salary of $3000.
The only untried indictment against M. Friedman, former superintendent of the Carlisle Indian School, has been dismissed in the Federal District Court of Central Pennsylvania. This indictment was for conspiracy. The action was taken at the request of the U. S. Department of Justice and with the approval of Federal Judge Witmer.
Dr. Friedman was acquitted and completely vindicated of the charges brought against him by a prompt decision of the jury at the June session of the Federal Court at Williamsport. Chief clerk Nori, who testified against him at the trial was sent to the penitentiary.
A number of prominent men received letters and personal calls from certain individuals attacking Dr. Friedman. They advised him of the contents of the letters and the details of the visits made to harm him and take from his their support. These influential men have continually advised him to enter suit for libel in order to deter their further malicious attacks on him and his family.
It is know that Dr. Friedman's counsel has under consideration the prosecution of certain persons for libel and defamation of character. He has suffered much during the past two years from malicious attacks by irresponsible persons who have carried on an unscrupulous campaign through the mails and newspapers to defame his name and character
Dr. Friedman has just been appointed to a most responsible position, with a salary of $3,000 per year and all expenses.