In an effort to compile as complete a listing possible for students
who were enrolled at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Barbara Landis
and Genevieve Bell are collaborating in their research work. Bell
spent nine months at the National Archives (NARA) developing a database
of the student folders in Record Group 75, File 1327. Landis has
taken the names found in the weekly/monthly publications, photograph albums,
and census records, and refined them for inclusion with Bell's NARA list.
The list is organized by nation.
Learning finger songs at Carlisle Indian School ca 1900
Frances Benjamin Johnston photo
May not be reproduced without permission.
Landis and Bell recommend the following sources for those interested
in learning more about the Carlisle Indian School, the dozens of off-reservation
boarding schools modeled after Carlisle, and the assimilationist movement
of the late-19th / early 20th Centuries. Comments are the opinions
of Landis and/or Bell.
CARLISE INDIAN INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.
What follows is a list of the newspapers published by the United States
Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. These primary sources are
highly propagandistic. They were written by Indian School students
as part of their Printing Training, under the heavy editorial eye of the
school administrators, especially the founding father, Richard Henry Pratt,
whose tenure at Carlisle covered the period from 1879 until his dismissal
in 1904. Each issue of the monthly magazines espoused some philosophical
article pertaining to the merits of assimilation and/or allotment.
The weeklies typically held news items for events at the school and of
students who participated. Also included in these was news of former
students chronicling their lives as reported in their letters back to "dear
old Carlisle." As you will see below, the names of these papers changed
frequently and tracking this is somewhat confusing:
EADLE KEATAH TOH,
April 1880 - March 1882. Published monthly. Name changed
to RED MAN and RED
MAN & HELPER.
June 1880 - May 1883. Published monthly.
THE MORNING STAR, April 1882 - December
1887. Published monthly.
THE RED MAN, January 1888 - June 1900.
THE CARLISLE INDIAN BOYS' & GIRLS' FRIEND.,
1885 (July 31 & August 7). Published weekly every Friday.
THE INDIAN HELPER,
1885 - 1900. Published weekly every Friday.
THE RED MAN AND HELPER, 1901-1904. Published
weekly every Friday.
THE ARROW, August 25, 1904 - June 19,
1908. Published weekly.
THE CARLISLE ARROW, September
1908 - 1918. Published weekly. Name changed toTHE
CARLISLE ARROW AND RED MAN in 1918.
THE INDIAN CRAFTSMAN, February 1909
- January 1910. Monthly magazine. Name changed to THE
RED MAN in 1910.
THE RED MAN, February 1910 - June 1917.
CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL HEARINGS BEFORE THE JOINT COMMISSION
OF THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES SIXTY-THIRD CONGRESS SECOND SESSION
TO INVESTIGATE INDIAN AFFAIRS, FEBRUARY
6, 7, 8 AND MARCH 25, 1914: PART II. Washington:
Government Printing Office. 1914. Amidst allegations of lax discipline,
immorality, illegal sports recruiting and waning public support for the
off-reservation government boarding school policies, a hearing was held
to explore the abuses at the Carlisle School. Giving testimony were
Angel DeCora Dietz, the Winnebago artist hired to establish the Native
Arts and Crafts Program. Also testifying were Gus Welch, Chippewa,
who helped to initiate the proceedings by petitioning the Congress to look
into the Carlisle situation.Copies
are difficult to find. Suggested venues: Interlibrary loan,
Duke University, the Cumberland County Historical Society, the Wisconsin
State Historical Society, and the 42nd St. Library in New York City.
LARNER, JOHN W. ED. THE PAPERS OF CARLOS MONTEZUMA,
M.D. Available on microfilm from Scholarly Resources,
Inc. Carlos Montezuma was an active participant in the affairs
of the Carlisle School from his early years as a medical student at the
Chicago Medical College, serving as school physician for a 3-year period
in the mid-1890's and as a supporter during his time as one of the founders
of the Society for American Indians. Included are his letters from
fiancé Zitkala Sa, aka Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, and a scandalous
letter from William Thompson, the first football coach at the Indian School.
LARNER, JOHN W. ED. THE PAPERS OF THE SOCIETY OF
AMERICAN INDIANS, 1906-1946. Available on microfilm from
Scholarly Resources, Inc. All of the correspondence relating to
the formation of this pan-tribal organization advocating citizenship for
REEL, ESTELLE. COURSE OF STUDY FOR THE INDIAN SCHOOLS
OF THE UNITED STATES: INDUSTRIAL AND LITERARY. Washington:
Government Printing Office. 1901. Reel was the Superintendent
of Indian Education at the turn of the century. This is her curriculum
guide for all government boarding schools.