Cleaver Warden says : “ Yesterday evening before supper I cut Henry Kendall’s hair. I cut it very carefully, because it is very soft. After I get done, I cut Harvey Townsend’s, but it was very hard-like horse tail.”

February 1882 SCHOOL NEWS

U.S. Indian Industrial School, Carlisle, Pa., June 13, 1885.
D.B. Dyer, U.S. Indian Agent, C&A Agency, Indian Territory.
Dear Sir,
The following students from your agency are entitled to return to their homes on account of expiration of the period for which they came: Lydia Big Nose, Jesse Spread Hands, Myra Cedar Grove & Cleaver Warden. These four are anxious to remain longer at the school, and it is my judgement they should. They are in good health and making satisfactory progress --- Casper Edson and Wm. Fletcher desire to return and come back in the fall. I should favor their doing so. Steve Williams says he wishes to return and help Mr. Vogt in the mission. Arnold Woolworth, Carl Matches, Kias Williams and Ernie Black wish to return and remain. They hope to get something to do. As Steve, Arnold and Kias are full grown men they can very properly take charge of their own future. Carl Matches and Ernie Black are still under age and might properly be held to school longer. Sarah Sitting Bull is reported by the school physician as having Scrofula and constitutional debility indicating that she had better be returned.
I would be very glad to have your views in regard to these students as early as practicable. Those that return will be started from here after the 1st.
Elkanah Dawson, Cheyenne, who came to us from your agancy, is also entitled to be returned: but his father is at Pine Ridge Agency and I will send him there.
In regard to Clarence Powder Face, I enclose letter from Dr. Given, which speaks for itself. I do not seem to have any grounds to ask for his return.
Very truly yours, /S/ R.H. Pratt, Capt. and Supt.
The money is placed to Clarences credit and subject to Powder Face order.
I mailed you a photo of your party taken last fall at Gettsburg.
O.G. Given to R.H. Pratt, June 13, 1885,
School Physician
Clarence Powder Face was "saturated with malaria" when he arrived at Carlisle Barracks, free of disease this year.
Text Copyright (c) 2005 Sipe/Berthrong Cheyenne Collections. Boarding School Files. Carlisle, Pa.
  News has just been received of the marriage of Cleaver Warden at Cheyenne Agency, Ind. Ter., to the sister of Alex Yellowman.

August 31, 1888 INDIAN HELPER

                    DARLINGTON, IND. TERR., 
                      January 7, 1889.
   DEAR FRIEND:-I suppose you read in the daily papers about Oklahoma being so close at hand for settlement. I often come down to Darlington, and I do not find anything going on among the boomers. People here seem to be well posted on Oklahoma business. They talk of nothing else but about boomers being too plentiful all around.
   An officer with twenty soldiers and twenty Indian scouts is out in the field for that purpose ordering the boomers out of the country of "promise."
   Hoping that it will soon be open for settlement so that a fellow can come here and work.
                       From your friend.
                          CLEAVER WARDEN.

January 18, 1889 INDIAN HELPER

   Cleaver Warden, an Arapahoe boy who went to his home in Indian Territory, several years since, has had some employment or other during all the time. He writes that the last earnest talk 'from our superintendent to which he had the pleasure of listening made him feel that as the Government had expended so much money to educate him he should use that education for his own support. While he can not help eating Government rations at times yet the money he has earned has contributed to his own support and that of others. Cleaver is now doing office work at the Agency.

November 22, 1889 INDIAN HELPER

   Through a letter from Mr. Potter, who for several years was a worker among the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians and last year was numbered among Carlisle's employees but now is located on a homestead in Oklahoma, we learn that:
   "Harry Raven is a clerk in the trader's store and is the proud father of a little boy whom he calls William Miller Raven, and says "That name will be seen on the rolls at Carlisle in the year 1900.'
   Harvey White Shield is locating on a claim adjoining the city of King Fisher. He has his eye open to business when the Cheyenne Reserve opens up.
   Hubell Big Horse is toiling hard on his farm on the Washita, under Mr. Seger.
   Robert Burns and Cleaver Warden are clerking in the Agent's office and are very efficient.
   Paul Boynton wears only blanket with face painted, and I have never seen him yet to know him.
   John D. Miles, Ernie Black, Bird Seward, and others are scouts receiving $25 a month and found, and they are endeavoring to save part of their salaries for a rainy day, although they find it up hill work, having numerous relatives and friends who are always ready to hang on to the working Indians for support.
   Leonard Tyler and other Carlisle boys are very active in their efforts to persuade the other Indians to take their lands in severalty and become individuals.
   The Cheyenne school has received large appropriations and is to be converted into a large training school after the pattern of Carlisle, equipped with a full system of shops, etc. No prettier location could have been selected.
   It is quite refreshing to receive the HELPER with its lively and newsy articles.
   Carlisle seems to be the centre of the Indian universe.
   It is the sun of Indian civilization the light of which pierces its way into the farthest reservation.
   All other agencies and instrumentalities are more or less guided by and attracted to their source and head -- the great civilizer, Carlisle.
   Cut off the light, the teachings and the power which is diffused daily from that great institution and nothing less than a drought in the field of Indian civilization and advancement would certainly follow. Any one who would endeavor to cramp or lessen the usefulness of the Carlisle school is certainly far from being plumb in the upper story.
   It seems ridiculous to censure or under value the work of such an institution owing to retrogression of some of the students who return to the reservations where a life of idleness and sin awaits them.
   What percentage of the number of the white students leaving other schools make life a success and shine out as brilliant lights? And yet they have got to contend with the destroying influences of an Indian reservation.
   The reservation is a poor old granary in which to store the products of such a school as Carlisle. 
   Why blame the farmer or censure his methods of work if the results of his labors are stored against his wishes in a place where his grain will be destroyed?"

August 22, 1890 INDIAN HELPER

  Cleaver Warden, who lives at Darlington, Indian Territory, wishes to thank an unknown friend who kindly sent him a package of newspapers.

December 5, 1890 INDIAN HELPER

   A Peep at the Cheyenne Agency, I.T.
   Our good friend Mr. Seger again favors the readers of the Indian Helper with one of his bright letters about his work and about the doings of some of our returned students.
   He says:
   At the writer's last visit to the Agency, as he entered the Agent's office, a pleasing sight met his eyes, for there sat Cleaver Warden industriously writing, and a little way from him at another desk sat Robert Burns, also engaged in clerical work.
   Another desk was occupied by Paul Boynton.
   The very look on each face showed that they meant business.
   It did not take my mind long to flit back some fifteen years and to see these same boys as they were brought to me at the Agency school.
   They wore long hair and were dressed like hundreds of other Cheyenne and Arapahoe boys in full Indian costume.

   By the aid of a tub of water, comb and shears they were ready in a short time to put on their suits of jean, when they had the appearance of fresh hatched school-boys.
   From that time on their faces have been turned toward the paths of civilized life.
   But the change was not yet.
   Paul Boynton served an apprenticeship as type-setter at the office of the *Red Man*, and persevered until he became proficient as typesetter and became a good penman, which with his knowledge of the English language fits him for the position he now holds.
   Robert Burns did not commence clerking in the Agent's office the next day after entering school, strange as it may seem.
   After attending the school at the Agency for two or three years he went to Carlisle, Pa.
   After spending some time in this school, he attended college and graduated with honors.
   Cleaver Warden was also a student of Carlisle, where as a leading disputant in a debate he said, "The American Indian should be exterminated," and said he "I will be the first one to jump into the Atlantic Ocean."
   But now are not these three Indians trying to exterminate the Indians within themselves, by leading industrious lives?
   As such thoughts as these flash through my mind, I am interrupted by the cry of "Johnnie Schmoker," from a number of Indians, who were seated outside of the office-railing.
   After shaking hands with them I passed in behind the railing and there was eagerly greeted by my old school-boys, who had grown to be men.
   Cleaver laid down his pen and turned around in his chair, facing me and said "Why do the Indians call you Johnnie Schmoker" I have often wondered why they did this but have never before inquired."
   "Well, your curiosity shall be satisfied, at least," said I. "That name was given me by the Arapahoes in the year 1873.
   "It happened this way:
   "I had not been at the Agency long, when I visited the Arapahoe school.
   "The superintendent was a Quaker gentleman and a good friend of mine, as well as an old acquaintance.
   "It was in the evening and the children were so wild and restless that the superintendent shut them in the playroom and locked the door, for the double purpose of keeping the children in and the camp Indians out.  "I soon found that visiting with my friend was out of the question, for the children kept up such a din and noise, dancing and drumming on the stove, benches or anything that would vibrate, until I could hardly think, let alone talk.
   "Yet I did think a little, regardless of the noise.
   "I thought how pleasant and smiling the superintendent looked, then I thought how wild and noisy the children were.
   "What a contrast!
   "It was like a placid lake beside a raging cataract.
   "I could not help thinking if that placid lake and cataract could mingle, how much more pleasant it would be!
   "While thoughts like these occupied my mind, the orchestra ceased playing. In other words, the children stopped.
   "This called for another distortion of my countenance, which set two boys giggling, and by this time I had the attention of all the scholars, when they would cry in Arapahoe:
   'Do it again! Do it again!'
   "I was so in ready to change the programme and did so by stepping to the middle of the floor and singing, accompanying with gestures the old school song 'Johnnie Schmoker.'
   "The children formed a ring around me and gave me their undivided attention while I sang about my drum, fife and cymbal.
   "But at the conclusion of the song, when I reached out my arm and crooked my finger to represent a pipe and gave three hearty puffs of pretended smoke in the air, the children danced with glee, for they had grasped an idea.
   "They shouted for an encore, and as the song was repeated, several followed the gestures and tried to repeat the words.
   "Before the winter was over the children were singing 'Johnnie Schmoker' in camp as well as on the play ground, and I was called Johnnie Schmoker by both old and young Indians.
   "Now, if the readers of the HELPER find anything in this letter to interest them. I will write again and tell them how the writer sang himself into the superintendency of the Arapahoe Manual Labor and boarding School, where he remained in charge for five years without interruption."

January 16, 1891 INDIAN HELPER

From a trip to the Indian Territory, we gather some interesting news about a number of our returned students. Benajah Miles and Casper Edson are government school farmers. Jesse Bent, Cleaver Warden and Grant Left Hand are clerking in the stores. Robert Brown and Kish Hawkins are clerking in Agent's Office. Luke Bear Shield is school clerk and interpreter at Darlington. Julia Bent is teaching at the Cheyenne agency school. John Williams is Register of Wills of one of the counties with a salary If $1,000 a year. William Fletcher is also a Register of Wills and hay the best cornfield in that vicinity. Oscar Bull Bear, is Assistant Government Farmer at, Seger, Okla. Leonard Tyler is Assistant Farmer at Cheyenne School. Jennie Black Tyler, his wife is assistant laundress at the same school. Mary North Tassie has a Cheyenne husband, is living on a good farm, is a good housekeeper, and exerts a good influence. At the Pawnee Agency, Stacy Matlack and William Morgan are district government farmers. Rose Howell is assistant matron at Otoe school. Louie Bayhylle is on the police force. Robert Matthews has resigned his position as school farmer and expects to come east on his own work. Frank West is married. Paul Boynton is filling some county office. Henry North has resigned his position as clerk in Agent's Office. The three last are working on their claims. Maud Chief Killer is married to Colonel Horn and they are working at the Cheyenne school. All the returned students are doing well.
August 11, 1893 INDIAN HELPER
  Cleaver Warden, Jessie Bent, Left Hand, Scabby Bull, Black Crow, White Buffalo, Washie, of the Arapahoe tribe; Robert Burns, John Otterby, Little Wolfe, Little Chief, Little Hand, Horse Road, Big Bear, Cloud Chief, Buffalo Meat, Three Fingers, All Runner, Wolfe Robe, Prairie Chief, of the Cheyenne tribe, and all of the Oklahoma Territory, in charge of Mr. Chester Cornelius, arrived from Washington, on Wednesday.  Messrs. Burns, Warden and Bent are old Carlisle pupils.

December 9, 1898 INDIAN HELPER

     The Indian Chiefs.

  The chiefs from the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency, presented a fine appearance as they sat upon the rostrum last Wednesday evening.  They listened with interest to the band and choir and to Mr. Standing's address of welcome.  When Major Pratt spoke of their presence with us and his pleasure at having them here, he said they were men he knew 31 years ago at a time when some of the tribes were not friendly, and it was interesting if not dangerous to be among them.  Mr. Standing referred to his pioneer life down in the section of the country from whence they had come.  He said he knew Left Hand the best.  Robert Burns, interpreted for the Cheyennes and Cleaver Warden for the Arapahoes.  Both were early pupils of Carlisle.  When it came time for the chiefs to speak, Major introduced Left Hand first.  He said he was one of the men he had met on the Washita 31 years ago.  The Major had met Mr. Standing down in that country also, and it was through his work of preparation that we got 56 of the children of the two tribes that these chiefs represented, to enter Carlisle.  Left Hand sent three of his own boys.
  Left Hand, Arapahoe, said in part, Cleaver Warden, interpreter:
  My friends, I am glad to see you all gathered in this room.  I consider myself as deaf and dumb, but there is a light before me and all the Indians in the United States.  Since I came here and saw you I have been encouraged, and I want to impress upon you that you are to carry heavy responsibilities in the future.  I shall have  a great deal to tell my people when I go home.
  Wolfe Robe, Cheyenne, Robert Burns, interpreter, said: "I am glad to see you all and I am very glad to see that you are learning something.  Improve your time while you are here, so you will be able to manage affairs when you go out from this school.  I have been here before and I am glad to be here now."  Wolfe Robe spoke eloquently in his own language, which sounded very strange to the ears of most of his audience.
  The Major in introducing Buffalo Meat, Cheyenne, said that he had had the unpleasant duty, years ago as an officer of the army, to put chains upon this man, before taking him to Florida as a prisoner of war.  The taking of 74 of the warriors of the southwestern plains in 1875, to Florida proved to be the greatest moving cause toward the establishing of Carlisle.  Although the Major was obliged to treat Buffalo Meat so harshly they had always been friends, and when the time came to send children to Carlisle, Buffalo Meat was ready.
  Buffalo Meat said in part:
  "These are the representative men of my tribe.  The only advice I have to give to the pupils before me is to improve.  We are blind and cannot hear from ourselves.  I am a member of the church, and I pray for the students of the Carlisle school.  I have seen other schools, and I picked out this, for I think this is the best."  Then Buffalo Meat bowed his head in prayer, and in his own language which was not interpreted, sent up a petition that was impressive and powerful.  Although we could not understand a word he uttered the power of the Spirit was manifest and the very breath of his audience could be heard in the stillness of the moment.  Buffalo Meat is the first Christian Chief, uneducated, who ever prayed orally before the Carlisle school.
  Then Robert Burns, Jesse Bent and Cleaver Warden, ex-students who were the interpreters for the visitors, spoke earnestly showing that they too, considered it a privilege to say a few words to the school.  At the close, the audience sang America, and the students marched out as the band played.

December 16, 1898 INDIAN HELPER

  Cleaver Warden and Leonard Tyler of Oklahoma, who were pupils of Carlisle years ago, visited the school last week.  It will be remembered that Cleaver Warden was here a few months ago with a party of Cheyenne and Arapahoe chiefs who had been in Washington on business for their tribes.  Messrs. Warden and Tyler appear to be men of sturdy worth, and were full of interesting accounts of their work since they left us as pupils, but both deplore that they did not remain in school long enough to become educated men.
  One of them might have been the lawyer in Washington to be employed by the tribe at a salary of several thousand dollars a year, instead of the man now employed, had they become learned in the law.  Mr. Warden had the ability when a school boy to push himself up into this higher sphere of usefulness, but they were enticed back home.  Mr. Tyler went back on account of health; both have done well considering the uphill work they found, but who can estimate what the tribe has lost by their not going on through the high school, the college, the law school and up onto vantage ground from whence they could command a view of real situations.  They see more than the chiefs but these half-educated men are yet so blind and incapable as to make it necessary to employ others to look after the tribal interests.

February 24, 1899 INDIAN HELPER

United States Department of the Interior, Indian Field Office, Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Agency, Concho, Oklahoma, July 14, 1928.
Indian Fair Association in meeting at Coyotes place elected the following committees:
    Cleaver Warden, Chairman; Charles Curtis, Norton Beaver, Darwin Hayes.
    George Frass, Chairman; Hailman Hawk, John Pedro, Howard Bird.
 Stock And Poultry:
    Dawes White Bird, Chairman; Emil Curtis, Sampson Kelly, Robert Sankey.
 Home Economics And Native Arts And Crafts:
    Annie Van Horn, Chairman; Susie Pratt Sankey, Mollie Shepard, Mollie C. Big Nose.
 Better Babies Show:
    Mrs. George Frass, Chairman; Mrs. Belle Martin, Mrs. Flora Clark.
 Entertainment: (Includes Indian dances, games, fancy and bucking riding, informing and directing public, beauty contest (of young girls 15 to 20 yrs. in Indian dress)
   Mack Haag, Chairman; Tom Levi, Scott Harrison, Peter Hoof and John Heap-of Birds.
 Law and Order on Camp Grounds of Indians.
   Kish Hawkins, Chief of Indian Police, under the direction of the Superintendent of Indian Agency, will be permitted to select two helpers for police duty, and together with such other law enforcement officers as may be provided the camp and immediate vicinity will be guarded and law and order enforced.

Sipes Cheyenne Collection, Indian Fairs Section -Text Copyright (c) 2004 John Sipes Collection.

C&A Carlisle School File, (There is no date on this note)
Entitled to return home: Lydia Big Nose; Jessie Spreadhands; Myra Cedergrove; Clarence Warden. These are anxious to remain longer. Casper Edson; Wm. Fletcher; Arnold Woolworth; Carl Matches; Kias Williams; and Ernie Black also wish to return. Sarah Sitting Bull and Elkanah Dawson (Cheyenne)- father at Pine Ridge.

Text Copyright (c) 2004 John Sipes
(Berthrong Cheyenne Collection. Carlisle School Section.)

7350/1907, Seger File, #127, Walter Roe,Supt. of Okla. Missions, Reformed Church of America to C.F. Larnabee. Comm. of Ind. Affairs, Aug. 30,1907.
Recommends 34 Indians to lease and handle their own property. John Washee, Cleaver Warden, Hartley Ridge Bear, Wm. Little Chief, Alfrich Heap of Birds, Stacy Riggs, Watan, and Kias, (Note: Kias or Short Nose was father- in- law of Ed Burns. Ed was son of Robert Burns.) (Sipes Field Notes), were among the 34.

Text Copyright (c) 2004 Sipes/Berthrong Cheyenne and Arapaho Collections. Land Allotment Files.

Note: As late as 1926 patents in fee simple were being denied because of lack of education and general business abilities.
Many of the applicants were unable to speak or write English. Where land could be disposed of under supervision it was recommended the land be sold by the Agent and Commisioner of Indian Affairs.
Most of the land belonged to the elderly, orphans and those Indians considered incompetent by the arbitrary decision of both the Agent and Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
U.S. Dept. of Interior
Office of Indian Affairs
Washington D.C.
Education- Administration Circular #401, March 12, 1910.
To All Indian Superintendents
"Report and statistics on returned students that attended non-reservation schools in so far as the success or failure is concerned."
Carlisle, Pennsylvania. (Name and Occupation Shown Below)
Ernie Black, works by the day and has sold his land.
Harvey White Shield, looks after his own business and rents his land for a share of the crop.
Joe Pawnee, none at present. 
William Abe Somers, none.
Alfred Brown,none.
Charles DeBrae, farmer.
Henry Roman Nose, none.
Cohoe, none.
James Hamilton, none.
(The above Cheyennes)
Arapahoes: Comanche, none; Phillip Rabbit, none; John H. Williams, none, has sold his land; Francis Lee, none; Dan Tucker, none; Cleaver Warden, farmer; Tom Carlisle, none; Howling Wolf, none, (Cheyenne).

Text Copyright (c) 2004 Sipe/Berthrong Cheyenne Collections. Boarding School Sec. - Returned Students.